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   Patents 1877-1900


*U.S. Patent No. 199,141, 01/15/1878 (app. 10/16/1877) [DjVu258KB]
Improvement in Telephones (class: 379/167.01 379/391 381/178)
Emile Berliner
Abstract: In an application for Letters Paint made by me June 4, 1877, I have shown how sound may be transmitted and reproduced by means of a vibratory metal or carbon plate in contact with a metal or carbon pin. The transmission was made by either breaking the contact or by alternately weakening and stengthening the same at each vibration of sound affecting the plate. The reproducton of the sound was effcted by permitting such a current thus consisting of electric waves to pass through a similar receiving-instrument, consisting also of a metal or carbon plate in a vibratory position in contact with a metal or carbon pin. As shown in the said application, each electric wave passing over the point of contact would cause a recoiling of the plate from the pin. Thereby an air-wave would be produced, and, as the electric waves would follow one after the other in exact accordance with the transmitting sonund-waves, the air waves or vibrations produced by the receiving- instrument, occurring at the same rate and measure would, therefore reproduce the same tone that affected the transmitter. Since then I have found that when sound is transmitted by varying the intensity of the current without interrupting the same--namely, by merely weakening or stengthening the contact at each vibration, and thereby the current--the effect on the receiving-instrument is not very strong, and particularly at long distances the effect is but feeble, and requires some attenton to be audible. I have therefore constructed an apparatus, together with a combinaton of currents, which will materially assist to remedy the deficiency mentioned--first, by having not one but several points of contact with one and the same plate, or a modification of such a device by which several contacts are affected simltaneousy; and, secondly, by using a kind of telephonic relay or transfer in connection with a local-battery circuit.

*U.S. Patent No. 200.521, 02/19/1878 (full text) (DjVu 178KB)
Improvement in phonograph or speaking machines
Edison, Thomas A.
To all whom it may concern:
   Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison of Menlo Park in the county of Middlesex and State of New Jersey, have invented an Improvement, in Phonograph or Speaking Machines, of which the following is a specification:
   The object of this invention is to record in permanent characters the human voice and other sounds, from which characters such aound may be reproduced and rendered audible again at a future time.

*U.S. Patent No. 201,760 , 03/26/1878 ((app. 03/04/1878 (22 days!)) [DjVu49KB]
IMPROVEMENT IN SPEAKING-MACHINES. (class: 181/177; 369/156)
Edison, Thomas A.
Abstract: To all whom it may concern:
   Be it known that I, Thomas A. Edison, of Menlo Park, in the county of Middlesex and State of New Jersey, have invented an Improvement in Speaking-Machines, (Case 153,) winch I term the "Aerophone," and of which the following is a specification:
   The object of this invention is to reproduce the human voice or other sounds with greatly-increased volume or force.
Articulation produces certain atmospheric sound waves or vibrations in a given relation to each other in respect to volume or character. The sound-waves of words uttered in a whisper correspond generally to those uttered in the loudest tones, except in the volume.
   In my phonograph, heretofore secured by me, (Case No. 149,) the sound produced by the instrument corresponds to the sound acting upon the diaphragm, only less in volume.
   The object of the present invention is to reverse the action of the phonograph, and cause the human voice or other source of sound to reproduce that sound in tones that are louder than the original utterances, thereby enabling a feeble voice to be heard distinctly to any desired extent within the capacity of the instrument.
   I make use of a diaphragm, against which the sound-vibrations are directed from the voice or other primary source of sound, and this diaphragm or other body moved by such sound-vibrations is made to control the exit of air, steam, or other fluid under pressure, and so set in motion secondary sound-vibrations, the same as the primary sound-vibrations, except of greater volume. The relative volumes of the sound-vibrations will depend upon the pressure of the fluid and the opening for the escape of the same.
My invention is available for giving orders upon vessels, for signaling distant vessels, for military orders, for orders at fires, for communicating between engineers of passing locomotives, for station-signals, and for addressing large assemblies, or for giving audible utterances that are sufficiently powerful to be heard above surrounding noise or confusion.

*U.S. Patent No. 204,228 , 05/28/1878 (app. 03/25/1878) [DjVu53KB]
Hyatt, John W. (assignee: The Celluloid Manufacturing Co.)
Abstract: The invention relates to covering cores of substances of such nature as are not capable of sustaining the pressure of dies or rolls--for instance, wood and other fibrous materials, or tubes or other analogous structure which are liable to collapse under pressure.
   It is also intended to cover cores composed of material that is liable to warp or swell in the course of seasoning, it being particularly applicable to the covering of wood cores, such as the handles of whip-stocks, parasols, umbrellas, and other structures of an analogous outline, although it may be successfully applied to cores the diameters of which are at all approximate.
   The operation of the invention is as follows: The material is expelled over a mandrel or other suitable structure placed at the nozzle of a stuffing-machine, so that the composition exudes therefrom in a tubular form. The core is coated with any soap which does not contain rosin, or with any other suitable lubricant, to prevent friction between the material and the core, which is firmly held, so that it shall enter the tube as it exudes over the mandrel while the stuffing-machine expels it, the progress of the tube over the core being assisted by the hands, or in any other suitable manner. After the tube has covered the core a suitable distance, it is cut off, and the material allowed to dry upon the core, in which process it shrinks with great tension upon the core, and remains immovable thereon.

*U.S. Patent No. 213,554 , 03/25/1879 (app. 03/26/1877) [DjVu141KB]
Edison, Thomas A.
Abstract: To all whom it may concern:
   Be it known that I, Thomas A. EoISOn, of Menlo Park, in the county of Middlesex and State of New Jersey, have invented an Improvement in Telegraphs, of which the following is a specification:
   The object of this invention is to indent upon a sheet of paper the characters received from a distant station, or the characters transmitted from the same station, and to use such sheet of paper to transmit the same message, thus providing an automatic device for transmitting the same message more than once from one station to different stations, and for retransmitting the message automatically where it has to pass through several offices to reach its destination.
   In the drawings, Figure 1 is a plan of the instrument. Fig. 2 is a side view with the indenting-plate in section; and Fig. 3 is a section of part of the indenting-plate and pin.
   In chemical telegraphs a sheet of paper has been clamped to a disk, and the stylus resting upon such paper has been moved gradually toward or from the center of the disk by a volute groove in the surface of the disk itself or in a separate plate.
   I make use of a volute groove in a disk or plate; but the first part of my invention relates to the disk or plate with volute groove or channel in the under surface and the guiding point below such plate, while the point that operates upon the paper is above that plate.

*U.S. Patent No. 219,939 , 09/23/1879 (app. 11/29/1878) [DjVu141KB]
IMPROVEMENT IN PHONOGRAPHS. (class: 369/158; 369/179; 369/260)
Hall, A. Wilford
Abstract: To all whom it may concern:
   Be it known that I, A. WILFORD HALL, of the city, county, and state of New York, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Phonographs; and I do hereby declare that the follogiug is a full, clear, and exact description of the same, refbrence being had to the accompanying drawings, forming part of this specification.
   This invention consists in certain improvements in the phonograph which is the subject of Letters Patent. No. 200,521, dated February 19, 1878, to Thomas A. Edison. In that instrumcut, as described by the patentee in the specificatipn of his said Letters Patent, the sound-recording indentations or impressions produced on the tin-foil or yielding material are obtained by a single point and from one side only of the vibrating diaphragm, which is actnated by the sounds to be reproduced, and a single record only of the sounds is made, the indentations in such record being produced by the vibrations of the diaphragm in one direction only. Moreover, the vibration of the diaphragm is more Or less restricted in consequence of the method of adjustment described in said Letters Patent, such adjustment having the effect of bringing a lateral tension ou the diaphragm in one direction when the iustrument is in its normal condition or at rest.
   The objects of my invention are to provide for a more free vibration of the diaphragm, and to more fully utilize the vibrations of the diaphragm in both directions, both in the recording and in the reproduction of sounds, whereby I believe that several important advantages may be obtained, as will be hereinafter explained.
   My invention consists, principally, in the combination, with the sound-recording or sound-reproducing diaphragm, of two points aud one or more moving surfaces of yielding material, suitably arranged in connection with said points, whereby a divided record of the vibrations of the diaphragm is obtained and a double action is produced on the diaphragm for the reproduction of the sound--that is to to say, in obtaining the record, one half is obtained from one point and from one side of the diaphragm by the vibrations of the diaphragm in one direction, and the other half is obtained from the other point and from the other side of the diaphragm by the vibrations of the diaphragm in the opposite direction, and the other half is obtained from the other point and from the other side of the diaphragm by the vibrations of the diaphragm in the opposite direction; and in the reproduction of the sound the vibrations of the diaphragm in one direction are produced from one half of the record, and those in the other direction from the other half of the record. By this means less depth of penetration of the points is required than when the record is made by a single point, and, as it is not necessary to put the diaphragm under a normal lateral tension in one direction, the diaphragm will vibrate in response to less atmospheric disturbance than when a single point and recording surface are employed.

*U.S. Patent No. 220,169 , 09/30/1879 (app. 07/01/1879) [DjVu36KB]
Oakley, William H.
Abstract: To all whom it may concern:
   Be it knowu that I, WILLIAM H. OAKLEY, of Manistee, in the county of Manistee and State of Michigan, have invented a new and Improved Sound-Collector, of which the following is a specification.
   The object of my invention is Io furnish a device for collecting and concentrating sound, for use as an ear-trumpet and in connection with telephones and phonographs; and the invention consists in a cylinder fitted with a concave base and a small concave reflector at the focus of the base and facing the same, whereby the sounds collected by the concave from a large area are focused upon the reflector and concentrated at the desired point.
   The apparatus is shown in the accompanying drawings, wherein Figure 1 is a longitudinal section of the sound-collector. Fig. 2 is an end view of the same.

*U.S. Patent No. 222,292 , 12/02/1879 (app. 08/02/1879) [DjVu83KB]
IMPROVEMENT IN SHOCK OR JAR RECORDERS. (class: 346/7; 346/49; 346/126)
Luders, Thomas L. (assignee: one-half of his right to Charles J. A. Dick, of Lee, England)
Abstract: To all whom it may concern:
   Be it known that I, THOMAS L. LUDERS, of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, have invented a new and usefid Instrument for Recording Shocks and Jars, of which the following is a specification.
   My invention relates to an instrument for determining the causes of and suggesting the remedies for undue shocks and jars to which a railway-car may be subjected, my invention consisting, mainly, of the following elemeuts--namely, a suitable fame, a spring-controlled arm or arms pivoted to the frame and having pencil attachments, and a device for traversing a strip of paper in contact with the pencil or pencils, the lines drawn by which will, owing to the vibration of the arms, have irregularities of a character which will determine that of the shocks which cause the irregularities.

*U.S. Patent No. 222,652 , 12/16/1879
(app. 04/14 & 06/04/1877) [DjVu68KB]
Contact-Telephone (class: 381/178)
Emile Berliner
Abstract: In a caveat filed April 14, 1877, and in an application for a patent of the United States filed June 4, 1877, I have shown how articulate sounds may be transmitted telephonically by causing the sound-waves to affect a point of contact existing between two poles of an electric current. As shown in said caveat and application, each sound-wave striking the point of contact will cause a difference of pressure between the two sides of the point of contact, thus producing a proportional difference in the strength of the current, and will consequently give rise to electrical undulations which will correspond to the sound-vibrations which strike the contact. Since then a number of devices have been invented based upon this principle of varying the contact pressure, to which the nmne of "microphone" has been given; and although the original anticpatin which gave rise to this name has been but partially realized--that the instrument would magnify sound and be to the ear what the microscope is to the eye--I still have no hesitation in accepting that name for my invention, believing as I do that in many instances the action of contact-transmitters is microscopically small, and may occur between only two molecules, forming what is termed a "point of contact."
The present invention consists of the combination of a diaphragm of solid carbon or metal suitably supported in front of an air-chamber with a self-adjusting pin of carbon or metal convex upon the extremity in contact with the plate, which pin is permitted to slide or drop upon the carbon plate by its own weight, and is firmly fixed in the position then taken by any suitable clamping device.

*U.S. Patent No. 224,573 , 02/17/1880
(app. 09/05/1879) [DjVu78KB]
Microphone (class: 381/180; 381/178; 381/354)
Emile Berliner
Abstract: This invention is an improvement upon the microphone for which I filed an application for a patent of the United States August 11, 1879; and it consists in dispensing with the clamping device for fixing the carbon pin in position, in maintaining it constantly in contact with the diaphragm by the action of gravity, and in connecting the carbon pin to the battery by a device that will not interfere with said action.

*U.S. Patent No. 225,457 , 03/16/1880 (app. 02/02/1878) [DjVu90KB]
Bradley, Milton
Abstract: Now, having fully described my invention, what I desire to secure by Letters Pateent is--
   1. The method of producing clouded or irregular engraved surfaces by an engraving-machine, consisting in the application to the surface to be engraved of a foreign substance varying in thickness at different points to correspond with the depth of cut required.
   2. As an improvement in the art of engraving clouded or irregular surfaces by machinery, the employment of an irregular or uneven surface of wax or like material to govern the depth of cut of the graving-tool, substantially as described and shown.
   3. A prepared block or plate to be cut in an engraving-maehine, having its face provided with a foreign substance varying in thickness at different points according to the different depths of cut required.

*U.S. Patent No. 225,790, 03/23/1880 (app. 11/12/1879) [DjVu69KB]
MICROPHONE (class: 381/354; 381/180)
Emile Berliner
Abstract: To all whom it may concern:
   Be it known that I, EMILE BERLINER, of Boston, in the county of Suffolk and State of Massachusetts, have invented a new and usefull Improvement in Microphones, of which the following is a specification, reference being had to the accompanying drawings.
   In an application for Letters Patent of the United States filed September 5, 1879, I have described a microphone in which the two electrodes are maintained in contact with each other by the action of gravity, and one of the electrodes slides toward the other in an inclined support.
   The first part of the present invention is an improvement upon the microphone described in said application; and it consists of
a microphone in which the contact between the two electrodes is varied during the transmission of sounds by the variation in the pressure between the two electrodes caused by the, pressure of a pendulous weight suspended in such a manner that it is kept from reaching its point of rest by the interposition of the electrodes, one of which may be attached to the weight.
   It also consists in suspending this weight by a band or ribbon of some flexible material, whereby the suspended electrode is prevented from moving from side to side on the fixed electrod, and thus causing an imperfect transmission of sounds.

*U.S. Patent No. 227,644 , 05/18/1880 (app. 01/07/1880) [DjVu72KB]
SOUND-ARTICULATOR. (class: 181/127)
Orvis, Orel D. [abstract]
Abstract: This invention relates to devices for communicating sound to the auditory or acoustic nerves through the medium of the teeth or bones and tissues of the face.
   Heretofore devices for this purpose have been constructed of sensitive plates of thin sheets of vulcanized or hard rubber, or of metal, to one edge of which is rigidly secured a strengthening plate or strip and a handle, said plate being given the required curve from end to end, and consequently tension, to cause it to vibrate by pressing the opposite edge from the handle against the teeth, or by tightening a cord extending from said edge to or near the handle.
   In order to remove objections arising from the above class of devices in consequence of the rigidity given the vibrating plate by its handle, and in consequence of the curvature of the plate from end to end, rendering said plate non-sensitive to sound-waves coming front the sides of the plate, I have suspended my plate by wires, as hereinafter described, and curved it front side to side, the object of which is to provide a sound-articulator with a plate sensitive to sound coming from any direction and free to vibrate over its entire surface.
   A further object is to provide said device with an auxiliary sensitive plate which will receive from or conduct vibrations to the main plate in such a manner that said vibrations will have their force augmented before they are communicated to the auditory or acoustic nerves, whereby the latter will impart sound to the subject with increased volume.

*U.S. Patent No. 227,679 , 05/18/1880 (app. 03/29/1879) [DjVu115KB]
PHONOGRAPH. (class: 369/214; 116/144; 181/162)
Edison, Thomas A.
Abstract: I claim as my invention--
   1. The combination, with the phonograph cylinder, shaft, and screw-surface, of a swinging nut or screw-surface, to connect or disconnect the parts that keep the recording or phonet point in position relative to the groove of the cylinder, substantially as set forth.
   2. In combination with foil or a sound-recording surface, a point, a diaphragm, and a spring or damper acting to press the diaphragm toward the point, substantially as set forth.
   3. In combination with a foil or sound-recording surface, a point, a diaphragm, and a spring between the point and the diaphragm, substantially as set forth.
   4. The combination, in a phonograph or phonet, of a diaphragm a point, and a lever intervening between the diaphragm and the point, substantially as set forth.
   5. Thc combination, with the spirally-grooved cylinder in a phonograph, of a reel within the cylinder carrying the foil or similar recording material, a slot in the cylinder, through which the foil is led out, and means for clamping the foil, substantially as set forth.
   6. The combimttion, with the cylinder A, of the sliding bar o and lever x, to clamp the foil and stretch the same, substantially as set forth.
   7. The swinging sleeve t, having an arm that carries the diaphragm, in combination with the cylinder A, and rim s, having a screw-thread surface, substantially as set forth.
   8. The tube 29 upon the fixed stud 28, in combination with the sliding sleeve t, the diaphragm, and the cylinder A. substantially as described and shown.

*U.S. Patent No. 232,978 , 10/05/1880 (app. 04/30/1880) (Patented in Great Britain, 04/01/1878 - No. 1,278) [DjVu82KB]
STEAM-ENGINE RECORDER (class: 346/6; 73/712; 73/741)
Kenyon, John W.
Abstract: The object of my invention is to so construct a steam-engine indicator that its indicating power can be readily changed, and means may be provided for disconnecting the paper-cylinder from the actuating-cord. I employ a curved tube formed on the "Boardon" principle, instead of a piston, and to disconnect the paper-cylinder I raise it out of gear with a separate wheel upon which the cord acts.
I claim as my invention--
   1. The combination of the curved tube connected to the pencil-motion of a steam-engine indicator with the body-casting, adapted to be coupled to the steam-cylinder, and having a conduit, g, and a detachable coupling connecting said conduit to the curved tube, substantially as described.
   2. The combination of the cord-wheel and paper-cylinder b, adapted to slide toward and from such wheel, with devices, substantially as described, for connecting and disconnecting the two.
   3. The combination of the spring t with the paper-cylinder and cord-wheel, the two being provided with corresponding teeth and notch, as and for the purpose specified.
   4. The combination of the cord-wheel and cylinder with lever p and trigger s, substantially as set forth.

*U.S. Patent No. 235,120 , 12/07/1880 (app. 09/03/1880, no model)
PHOTOPHONIC TRANSMITTER. (class: 359/150; 359/180; 381/172)
Berliner, Emile [abstract] [DjVu53KB]
Full Text: To all whom it may concern:
   Be it known that I, EMILE BERLINER, of Boston, Massachusetts, have invented a new and useful Photophonic Transmitter, of which the following is a specification.
   This improvement relates to that kind of instruments called "photophones," in which a beam of light is set into vibration by being reflected from a vibratory reflector, or in which the amount of light transmitted at each sound-vibration is regulated by the movement of a diaphragm or other vibratory medium.
   In my improvement I make use of a heat-flame of low luminous quality--as, for instance, the flame of a Bunsen burner, or of an oxyhydrogen light, which is hardly visible, but which may heat other substances brought into its reach to incandescence, so that they become luminous, and to an extent as they are brought into contact with the flame, and I arrange a pencil of platinum, calcium, asbestus, or similar refractory substance so that its point is just in contact with the said flame, and I vibrate this pencil by means of a diaphragm, to which it is secured, or by which it may be acted upon. By this means I bring more or less of the pencil in contact with the flame, and the light emitted by the pencil will therefore in strength be proportionate to the amplitude of each vibration, and light-waves, varying in intensity and number in proportion to the transmitted sound-waves and their intensity, will result from this manipulation.
   In the drawings, A is a heat-flame of low luminous quality--as, for instance, a Bunsen flame or an oxyhydrogen light. B is a pencil of platinum, calcium, asbestus, or similar refractory substance, with its point just in contact with the flame. The pencil is attached to the center of a diaphragm, C, suitably mounted and provided with a mouth-piece like the mouth-piece of an ordinary Bell telephone, and this diaphragm may or may not be provided with a damper, D.
   By uttering now or producing sound in the neighborhood of the diaphragm the same will vibrate, and the pencil B will be brought in more or less contact with the flame and will give out a light of varying brilliancy, each vibration in accordance with the amplitude of the transmitted sound-wave.
   I do not broadly claim the art of transmitting undulatory light-waves corresponding to the undulatory waves of sound and articulate speech; but
   What I do claim is--
   A photophonic transmitter consisting of a heat-flame of low luminous quality, A, a pencil, B, of refractory substance in contact with the flame, and diaphragm C, substantially as and for the purpose set forth. EMILE BERLINER

*U.S. Patent No. 235,199 , 12/07/1880 (app. 08/28/1880, no model) [DjVu477KB]
APPARATUS FOR SIGNALING AND COMMUNICATING, CALLED "PHOTOPHONE." (class: 359/149; 250/214.1; 359/213; 359/226; 359/235; 359/236; 359/291; 455/550)
Bell, Alexander G. (assignee: American Bell Telephone Company)
Abstract: To all whom it may concern:
   Be it known that I, ALEXANDER GRAHHM BELL, of Washington, District of Columbia; have invented an Improved-Apparatus for Signaling and Communicating, called "Phototophone," of which the following description, in connection with the accompanying drawings, is a specification.
   My invention consists in a method of utilizing radiant energy and of applying it by suitable apparatus to produce audible signals and to produce electric siguals.
   The rays which proceed from the sun and other similar sources, falling upon various bodies, produce effects generally perceived by the senses, as heat or as color. Besides this, and notably when they fall upon the substances hereinafter mentioned, the energy, which they are to convey produces in those bodies a change which the sense of touch or the sense of sight has not been able to take notice of. This changed condition maybe fitly called a "state of strain," and I have been able to make it manifest in various ways in different substances. My discovery and invention relate to this class of changes.
   The changes in the sensitive bodies employed in the apparatus I shall describe follow the changes in the energy of the disturbing rays falling upon them with such extreme rapidity that the two are substantially coincident in time as compared with the time occupied by any vibrational movement Which can be detected by the ear. The eXtent of the change at each instant depends upon variation in the amount of radiant energy expended upon the sensitive body at that instant, and is approximately directly proPOrtional thereto. The change to a greater or less state of strain thus produced in the sensitive body will therefore correspond with the variations in the disturbing cause both in extent and in rapidity of successions. If, therefore, the energy of the rays acting on the sensitive body passes alternately from a maximum to a minimum--that is, exhibits a variation of a vibrational character--the changes in the sensitive body will be thereby correspondingly controlled in their period of change, in their direction of change, in their amplitude of total change, and also in the character of the changes which take place while passing from a maximum to a minimum and hack again; or, in other words, the curve which graphically represents the changes thus caused in the sensitive body will correspond to the curve which represents the variations in the disturbing rays due to natural causes, or which may be impressed upon them by artificial means.
   I have discovered and invented a method and apparatus for impressing any desired variation upon the rays or radiant energy falling upon the sensitive body. I have also discovered and invented a method and an apparatus by which the changes in the sensitive body from a less to a greater state of strain, and vice versa, can impart a corresponding motion to the air. If the changes succeed each other with sufficient rapidity and possess sufficient amplitude, the vibrational movements thereby imparted to the air become sensible as sound-waves, and a sound will be heard Which will correspond in pitch to the rapidity with which these changes succeed each other, in loudness to their extent, and in "quality" to the character or vibrational form of the changes.

*U.S. Patent No. 235,496 , 12/14/1880 (app. 09/25/1880, no model) [DjVu91KB]
PHOTOPHONE-TRANSMITTER. (class: 359/150; 359/170)
Bell, Alexander G. and Tainter, Sumner
Abstract: To all whom it may concern:
   Be it known that we, ALEXANDER GRAHAM BELL, of Washington, District of Columbia, and SUMNER TAINTER, Of Watertown, county of Middlesex, State of Massachusetts, have invented a new and useful Improvement in Photophonc-Transmitters, of which the following description, in connection with the accompanying dmwings, is a specification.
   Our invention relates to a photophone-transmitter, or instrument for controlling a radiant beam and imparting to it a varying character, whereby in falling on an appropriate receiving-instrumemt the said beam may be made to produce sound.
   In an application for United States Letters Patent filed by A. G. Bell, August 28, 1880, an apparatus was described for transmitting sound or reproducing it at a distant point by the agency of rays from the sun and other radiant bodies. A beam of rays failing on a suitable sensitive receiver produces an effect therein proportional to the amount or effective strength of the beam falling on it, and the said receiver thus effected is capable of imparting vibrations to the air or producing sound. In the said application various instruments were described for controlling the beam, the instruments themselves being controlled by air-vibrations or the voice of a speaker.
   One of the forms therein described, but not claimed, forms the subject of the present application, and consists, mainly, of a mirror or reflector, upon which the beam from the radiant body falls and from which it is reflected toward the sensitive receiving-instrument.

*U.S. Patent No. 235,497 , 12/14/1880 (app. 09/25/1880 no model) [DjVu123KB]
SELENIUM-CELL. (class: 338/17; 169/37; 250/214.1; 250/338.1)
Bell, Alexander G. and Tainter, Sumner
Abstract: Our invention relates to selenium-cells or instruments containing selenium as a part of an electric circuit.
   In an application of Alexander Graham Bell, flied August 28, 1880, an apparatus was shown and described for transmitting sound or producing variations in electric currents by the action of a beam of rays from the sun or other radiant bodies. The said apparatus contained an instrument having selenium in an electric circuit, the resistance whereof is varied in accordance with variations in the active force of the rays failing on the said selenium. In the said application various forms of instruments or cells containing selenium were described, some of which were not therein claimed, as they were'not invented by the said Bell. One of the forms therein described consists generically of two or more pieces of conducting material, held separated from one another by insulating material arranged to leave spaces between the said two conductors and insulating material to be filled with selenium, which thus completes the electric circuit between the said pieces of conducting material. The form specifically claimed in the said appiication consisted of rectangular plates of conducting material supported by insulating material arranged to leave a portion of the space between the said plates unoccupied thereby. The said space is filled with selenium, which connects the conducting-plates and lies in a plane surface to be exposed to radial action. In one form of receiving-instrument shown in the said application a parabolic mirror was used to concentrate the rays on the sensitive selenium, and when such a mirror is used it is found advantageous to construct the cell so as to afford a curved surface to be acted upon on all sides by the rays. An instrument of this kind (shown in the said application, but not therein specifically claimed,) together with several modifications thereof, forms the subject of the present application.

*U.S. Patent No. 235,590 , 12/14/1880 (app. 09/25/1880, no model) [DjVu105KB]
SELENIUM-CELL. (class: 338/17)
Tainter, Sumner
Abstract: To all whom it may concern:
   Be it known that I, SUMNER TAINTER, Of Watertown, county of Middlesex, and State of Massachusetts, have invented an Improvement in Selenium-Cells, of which the following description, in connection with the accompanying drawings, is a specification.
   My invention relates to selenium-cells or instruments containing selenimn as a portion of an electric circuit.
   In an application of Alexander Graham Bell, filed August 28, 1880, an apparatus was shown and described for transmitting sound or producing variations in electric current by the action of a beam of rays from the sun or other radiant bodies. The said apparatus contained an instrument having selenium in an electric circnit, the resistance whereof is varied in accordance with variations in the active force of the rays falling on the said selenium. In the said application various forms of instruments or cells containing selenium were described, some of which were not therein claimed, as they were not invented by the said Bell. One of the forms therein described, together with several modifications, forms the subject of the present application. In the said application of Bell it was stated that the selenium is of large resistance, and it should consequently be interposed in the circuit in the form of a conductor of but slight length and of large area; and it may be further stated that it is desirable to arrange  the selenium in circuit, so that it will have as large a surface as possibe to be acted upon by the rays, the effect of which is greater at or near the surface upon which they fall than upon the interior mass.
   The instrmnents of the present invention consist, generically, of two or more pieces of conducting material clamped or fastened together, but not in electric contact with one another, and so arranged that each shall have a large number of points near, but not touehing, the other, the said points being mostly situated in or near a given surface intended to be exposed to the action of the rays. Selenium is fused in between the said points, so as to electrically connect the two pieces of conducting material, and as the said points are. close together the selenium conductor is very short, and as the points are very numerous the selenium is interposed in circuit in multiple are, or as a conductor of large area, and it affbrds, moreover, a large surface to be acted upon by the rays in proportion to the amount of the selenium in the circuit. In some instances the pieces of condncting material are made as two plates, one having a series of holes, and the other a series of projecting points or pins of slightly smaller diameter, to pass into the said holes, but not quite fill them, the annular spaces around the pins being filled with selenium. The holes are made tapering, being smallest, and consequently approaching the pins more closely, at the surface to be acted upon by the rays, so that the selenium conductor is shortest at the surface and consequently the electricity has the most direct path through the selenium where it is directly acted upon by the rays, and consequently most sensitive. In another instance one of the pieces of conducting material is shown as a netting, and the projections of the other piece pass into, but do not quite fill, the interstices thereof. In another instance several pieces of conductive material are formed as concentric tubes, the external diameter of each being smaller than the internal diameter of the next larger, so as to leave concentric annular spaces between them. These spaces are filled near the ends of the tubes with selenium, the whole forming a continuous surface to be exposed to the action of the rays.

*U.S. Patent No. 341,214 , 05/04/1886 (app. 06/27/1885, no model) [DjVu304KB]
RECORDING AND REPRODUCING SPEECH AND OTHER SOUNDS. (class: 369/155; 29/DIG104; 82/1.12; 181/21; 181/162; 181/167)
Bell, Chichester A. and Tainter, Sumner
Abstract: The invention consists, first, in the formation of the record or "phonogram," as it has been called, by means of a cutting-style which is vibrated by the sound-waves or sonorous vibrations to be recorded. The vibrations may be impressed upon the style directly by the impact of the sound-waves upon some device mechanically connected with or carried by the cutting-style or its support, or indirectly through the action of an electric current or other suitable vibratory medium, Heretofore a large number of contrivanecs have been devised for converting electrical impulses into mechanical vibrations, and they could, of course, be used for vibrating the cutting-style. Otherwise they have no relation to this part of the present invention, the essential new feature of which is the removal of material to form the record by a cutting, gouging, or graving action of the vibrating style. Heretofore the vibrating style has, as in Edison's well-known phonograph, simply indented the recording material. It has been proposed to cut the record in the edge of a strip of metal or other solid material by vibrating the strip in contact with the cutting-edge of a rotary disk cutter; but this proposal is essentially different from this invention, the new mode being applicable to cutting the record upon all sorts of surfaces, and not upon strips only, and is, besides, believed to be later in time than this invention. Under this part of the invention are included the vibratory cutting-style as a new device in a sound-recorder, and the combination of the same with other devices; also the cut or engraved record itself. In this new or improved form of record not only may a larger number of words or sounds be recorded in a given surface than has been practicable with the indented records heretofore in use, but the recorded vibrations are also sharper and better defined. It is found that an indenting style smooths over the crests of the larger elevations, and also rubs out some of the finer ones.

*U.S. Patent No. 238,929 , 03/15/1881 (app. 11/30/1880, no model) [DjVu155KB]
AUTOMATIC TELEGRAPH. (class: 178/3; 178/89 )
Leggo, William A. (assignee: Electro Graphic Manufacturing Co.)
Abstract: The object of this invention is to furnish a system of automatic rapid telegraphic transmission in which the preparation of the message may be accomplished by the use of the ordinary key, thus avoiding the use of perforated paper and the necessity of machinery for perforating the paper, enabling one machine to be used both for the preparation for transmission and for the transmission of messages. A metallic drum capable of rotation in suitable bearings is arranged to be driven by any desirable motive power. Two sets of gearing are arranged between the prime motor and the drum, the change from one to the other being quickly and easily made by a shifting-lever. One set is calculated to give a comparatively slow rate of rotation to the drum for the reception upon it of the message at the ordinary speed of the "Morse operator," the other set giving the rapid rate permissible in automatic transmission. Upon a carriage are mounted, in such relation to the drum that when desired they may take thereupon, a stylus for transmission of the message placed upon the drum and a pen for placing the message thereon. This pen is controlled by a magnet mounted upon the carriage, the pen normally resting at its outer end upon the drum, while upon the other end of its lever it is provided with an armature, so that when the magnet is charged it is lifted from the surface of the drum, or vice versa. To the magnet leads a circuit from any suitable source of electric energy, a proper key being interposed in such circuit. The pen is charged with an insulating-ink, which may be any ordinary ink, to which has been added a little gum, mucilage, or sugar.
   In operation the drum is set to rotate at its slower rate and the Morse key operated in the usual manner, the stylus being thrown back from contact with the drum. While the key is open the pen rests upon the drum, placing thereon a line of insulating-ink, whose width depends upon the width of the pen, which may be of any desired or effective width. Upon closure of the key the pen is lifted from contact with the drum, leaving its metallic surface clear. Thus the message is placed thereon in a series of insulating and conducting spaces, the latter representing the signals or the unitary portions forming a signal. When this preparation of the drum is completed the stylus is thrown down into contact with the drum and the pen removed therefrom. The stylus and drum are properly connected in the circuit leading to the point of reception, and the gearing shifted to give the drum its higher rate of rotation, whereupon impulses are transmitted over the line with great rapidity, corresponding exactly to the impnlses which, through the medium of the pen, caused the record upon the drum.
   It should be noted that the carriage carrying the stylus and the pen and its magnet is mounted upon a shaft on which it may slide, and rests also upon a screw-shaft receiving motion through intermediate gearing from the shaft of the drum, so that while the dram is rotating the carriage has a properly adjusted motion at a right angle to the line of rotation, causing the pen and stylus to describe a spiral line upon the surface of the drum. The carriage rests upon the screw-shaft by a half-nut only, Or by a pin, or by a knife-edge, so that it may be lifted therefrom and slid back to the starting-point upon the completion of its range of motion.
   The message is received upon any suitably-prepared chemical paper, as is well understood in automatic chemical telegraphy, although the paper prepared with nitrate of silver and then lubricated, as set forth in other applications of even date herewith, is preferable.
   It is desirable that the drum or other metallic surface used in the transmitter should be first thoroughly cleaned, and that then coating of gum or equivalent be applied to its surface, the surface then being washed until all the superfluous gum be removed--in fact, till to ordinary tests, feeling or visual, no gum apparently remains. Such treatment does not interfere with its conductivity, but serves to fill up any pores in the surface of the metal, rendering it smooth and avoiding or diminishing to a minimum friction thereon, and further preventing the adhesion thereon of any greasy matter, so promoting the preparation thereon of the message in insulating-ink.
   By the arrangement thus generally sketched the Morse operator, using his key in the ordinary manner, may prepare and compose the matter to be sent for automatic transmission, two or three minutes then sufficing for the transmission of what has occupied an hour for preparation, and which would have occupied an hour in transmission over the wire by the ordinary Morse method of telegraphy. This system, then, makes one wire suffice practically for many operators, increasing to that extent the capacity of each wire and providing for large amounts of business without the expenditure of large sums of money in additional wires, &c.
   The same general principles are exceedingly applicable and desirable for fac-simile telegraphy. For such transmission the message, which may be a writing, map, plan, chart, picture, or anything else capable of graphic representation, is written or imprinted upon the face of the drum, which is then caused to rotate, as before explained, a perfect fac-simile thereof being produced at the receiving station.
   It is evident that, instead of the surface of the drum being used, a plate, band, ribbon, tape, or any other equivalent form may be used, which may be prepared in any desirable manner and then placed in the machine, which in that case need have only the suitable quick motion; further, that instead of a drum a flat plate may be used, or any other form of message-receptacle, to which is connected gearing for giving the two rates of motion--slow and fast--hereinbefore described, when such plate is used in the machine for both preparation and transmission.

*U.S. Patent No. 241,909 , 05/24/1881 (app. 03/24/1881, no model) [DjVu205KB]
PHOTOPHONIC RECEIVER. (class: 359/150; 250/214.1; 359/154; 359/212; 359/223; 359/291)
Bell, Alexander G. and Tainter, Sumner
Abstract: To all whom it may concern:
   Be it known that we; ALEXANDER, GRAHAM BELL and SUMNER TAINTER, both of Washington, in the District of Columbia, have invented a new and useful Improvement in Photophonic Receivers for the Production and Reproduction of Sound by the Action of Radiant Energy, which invention is fully set forth in the following specification.
   The invention relates more particularly to the reproduction of articulate speech photo-phonically--that is, by the action of radiant energy from the sun or other suitable source--but is also applicable, in whole or in part, to the production or reproduction of other sounds, to the production of electrical and other effects, and to other purposes. It is intended as an improvement upon the photophone for which Letters Patent No. 235,199 were granted to Alexauder Graham Bell, December 7, 1880.
   The said photophone consists, generally, of a photophonic transmitter, by which a vibratory or undulatory beam or pencil of rays is produced, corresponding in its vibrations or undulations with the atmospheric vibrations that represent the sound to be produced or reproduced, and a photophonic receiver, by which the vibrations or undulations in the said beam or pencil of rays are converted into sound-waves, or into vibrations in an electric current that can be converted into sound-waves.
   The present invention has reference to the photophonic receiver, and comprises means for converting the "radiant vibrations," as the vibrations or undulations of the beam of rays may be called, into sound-waves, and also into electric vibrations.
   As described in the aforesaid patent, the radiant vibrations were converted into sound-waves by means of thin diaphragms of hard rubber, mica, and various other materials, upon which the radiant vibrations were allowed to fall. The sound was conveyed to the ear by a hearing-tube connected with a sound-chamber in the rear or unexposed side of the diaphragm, which itself formed one side of said chamber, or a part of one side. With this apparatus, although it is not very sensitive, musical notes were produced by rapidly interrnpting a beam which was allowed to fall upon the diaphragm. The musical notes corresponded in pitch to the rate of interruption, and were loud enough to be easily heard.
   We have discovered that the loudness of the sonnd is increased by having the illuminated or exposed side of the sensitive medium in contact with the air of the sound-chamber with which the ear-tube is connected, and by allowing the radiant beam to fall upon said medium through a plate of glass or similar material which is transparent to radiant energy, but opaque or less transparent to sound-waves. In this way the full effect of the radiant vibrations upon the sensitive medium is obtained, and the resulting sound-waves are shut in and conveyed to the ear with approximately their full force.
   We have further discovered that a dark or black color in the sensitive medium is advantageous, and that with substances in all open, porous, or subdivided condition louder sounds are in general obtained than with diaphragms. The best effects are obtained with lamp-black deposited upon a surface of glass or other hard or rigid material. With a layer of this substance as the sensitive medium, articulate speech has been reproduced by the direct action of radiant energy upon said medium. In the experiments in which this result was obtained sunbeams were reflected from a mirror Of thin glass silvered, (as described in Letters Patent No. 235,496, granted to us December 14, 1880,) and the mirror, being thrown into vibration by the voice, caused more or less of the sunbeams to fall upon the lamp-black. The latter was deposited upon the inner walls of a sonnd-chamber having one side formed of a glass plate to transmit the radiant beam, and having an ear-tube commnnicating with the interior, as explained above.
   Articulate speech has also been reproduced with a receiver containing a mass of lamp-black in a loose pulverulent condition. A lump of lamp-black, when exposed in the sound-chamber to the action of an intermittent beam, gives a loud sound, but inferior to that given by the same substance in the form of loose powder or a deposited layer.
   Instead of smoking the walls of the sound-chamber, a plate of glass, mica, or other material can be smoked and placed in said chamber so that the light falls upon the smoked surface. The loudest sounds with the intermittent beam have been obtained by means of an open wire-gause smoked or covered with a deposit of lamp-black. With a tubular resonator having the interior smoked a loud sound is produced when an intermittent beam having the proper rate of vibration is allowed to fall into it.
   Numerous experiments have been made with various other substances. Black worsted may be mentioned as giving, with the intermittent beam, a good sound, although much inferior to lamp-black. Fibrous material coated with lamp-black has also been used.
   Conducting-bodies generally, in a physical condition similar to lamp-black, especially if of dark or black color, yield good sound. Spongy platinum should be particularly mentioned. Other metals or metallic compounds--as silver, copper, black oxide of manganese, and the like--are also sensitive to radiant energy, and give out sound by the direct action of a vibratory beam. The production of sound in this way is conceived to be due to an absorption and expulsion of the air by the vibratory medium acting, as it were, like a sponge. Thus when the energy of the radiant beam increases the particles composing the vibratory medium expand and expel the air front between them, and when it decreases the reverse action takes place and the air is again absorbed. These repeated expulsions and absorptions are proportionate to thc rise and fall of radiant energy, and produce corresponding condensations and rarefactions--or, in other words, sound-waves--in the surroundlug atmosphere. Heat due to the absorption of the radiant energy seems therefore to be the principal agent in producing the sound-waves.
   In the photophone as described in Patent No. 235,199, above mentioned, the radiant vibrations were converted into electrical vibrations by a different material from any used for the direct production of sound-waves, the peculiar substance selenium being employed. The resistance which selenium, when properly prepared, offers to an electric current was known to vary under the influence of rays from the sun or other suitable source of radiant energy, and it was therefore employed as the medium for converting the radiant into electric vibrations. It was included in the circuit of a galvanic battery and placed in such position that the radiant beam fell upon it. The variations in the radiant energy due to the vibrations in the beam produced corresponding variations in the resistance of the selenium and in the galvanic circuit of which it formed a part, and consequently in the tension of the current on said circuit, or, in other words, they produced electrical vibrations in that circuit. By the aid of cells constructed to expose a large surface of the selenimn, and the proper preparation of the latter, an apparatus was produced so sensitive to variations in radiant energy that, with a suitable photophonic transmitter and with an ordinary hand-telephone and galvanic circuit connected with the photophonic receiving apparatus, articulate speech was reproduced photophonically.
   We have discovered that the same medium used to produce musical notes or to reproduce speech by the direct action of the radiant vibrations can be used to convert the latter into electric vibratious.
   If a layer of lamp-black is included in an electric circuit and is exposed to the action of a vibratory beam of rays from the sun or other source, variations are produced in the electric resistance of the lamp-black, which variations correspond to those in the energy of the vibratory beam. If an intermittent beam is allowed to fall upon the lamp-black, electrical impulses are produced in the circuit in which the lamp-black is included corresponding to the radiant impulses of the beam, and if a telephonic receiver is also included in the circuit a musical note will be heard. If an undulatory or vibratory beam from the reflecting-transmitter before mentioned, or other speaking-transmitter which gives to the beam vibrations similar in rate, amplitude, and quality to the sound-waves of articulate speech, is allowed to fall upon the lamp-black, the electric undulations or vibratious in the galvanic circuit will represent the words and sentences which produced the vibratory beam, and if the apparatus is sufficiently sensitive these words and sentences can be reproduced by an ordinary telephonic receiver. The use of seleniun, which is objectionable for reasons based upon the nature of the substance itself, as well as upon its high price and scarcity, can therefore be dispensed with. The same objections do not apply to lamp-black.
   The action of radiant energy upon the vibratory medium to produce variatious in the electrical resistance of the latter appears to be similar to that in producing sound by direct action--that is to say, the particles are brought together or moved apart according to the increase or decrease of the energy of the beam. They consequently furnish to the electric current a path of less or greater resistance.
   All conductors in a physical condition similar to lamp-black have their electrical resistance affected by radiant energy. Spongy platinum is an example.
   We have devised a form of cell whereby any desired extent of surface of the lamp-black can be exposed to the radiant energy without introducing undue resistance into the electric circuit.
   Reference has hereinbefore been made to the cells used with selenium. These cells, the construction of which is fully described in Letters Patent Nos. 235,497 and 235,588, both dated December 14, 1880, consist, maiuly, of two or more conducting strips, plates, or disks, placed side by side and separated by thin sheets of insulatiug material, which extend nearly to the edges of the plates, so as to leave a narrow and shallow but long space to receive the selenium. The poles of the battery being connected with the plates which form the conductors of the cell, the current flows from one to the other through the selenium, meeting but small resistance on account of the thinness of the selenium layer. In some cases the selenium was cast around metallic pins embedded in insulating material connected with the poles of the battery.
   In the present invention the conductors are formed of thin strips, plates, sheets, wires, or films fixed or mounted upon an insulating backing or support with their edges opposed and near together, so as to leave one or more narrow channels to receive the sensitive medium. Cells of this character are much simpler than those already patented, and they are, besides, better adapted to use in connection with lamp-black. The improved cells can be made with a curved or cylindrical surface, although a flat surface would generally be preferred, and the conductors can be made of various forms and metals.
   Excellent results have been obtained with a cell having two conductors which resemble in appearance combs with wide-spaced teeth, and which are secured to the insulating-backing in such relative position that the teeth of one comb alternate or intermesh with the teeth of the other, but are not in contact with them. The sensitive medium fills the spaces between the teeth of the two conductors, and by increasing the number and length of the teeth the surface can be increased to any desired extent. The resistance to the electric current will, of course, depend upon the mass or area of sensitive medium, and upon the distance which separates the teeth of one comb from those of the other.
   In order that the electric current may flow equally from the several teeth, or generally from one couductor to another, it is necessary that the spaces between their adjacent edges should be everywhere the same.
   We have found that a film of silver deposited upon a glass plate by the methods ordinarily employed for silvering mirrors is possessed of great toughness, and can, with a suitable tool, be ruled or scraped off in stripes, so as to leave sharp edges which appear clean and well defined, even under a microscope. As the silvered film is not affected injuriously by lamp-black, it is, from its great conductivity and the accuracy with which it can be ruled, eminently adapted to use in this invention as the conductor of the photophonic receiver. The silvered film can be deposited upon a curved or flat surface, and can be scraped off in straight, zigzag, circular, spiral, or other suitable lines. The width of the stripe or stripes removed is regulated by the scraping-tool, and the position of the latter in operation is controlled and adjusted by mechanical means, so that the utmost exactness can be obtained.
   In the cell before referred to as giving excellent results the intermeshing combs were formed by scraping a silvered film from a flat glass plate, as just described. This form of conductor is, however, obviously of general application, and can be employed with various metals. For example, the combs can be cut from tin-foil and pasted upon glass. The lamp-black is applied to these cells by smoking the proper surface over a flame from a coal-oil lamp or other suitable burner. The lamp-black will be deposited on the conductors as well as between them; but this does not interfere with the practical workings of the apparatus. The depth of the layer deposited may be just sufficient to render the surface sensibly opaque. The character of the result is affected by the depth and also by the extent of surface exposed to the radiant energy. Although no special extent is requisite, a very large surface is not desirable, and there is a certain limit at which the best results are obtained in any case; but this limit varies with the energy of the radiant beam, the strength of the battery, and other conditions, so that no simple rule can be given. By depositing upon the silvered glass, ruled or scraped as explained, a layer which is sensibly opaque and wiping it off gradually around the edges, a spot of suitable size and character can be readily obtained.
   The cell is ordinarily secured in position in a sound-chamber having a glass plate for the entrance of the radiant beams, and it is so placed that said beams fall upon the lamp-black. If it is desired to receive a message or signal directly, as well as through the intermediary of the electric current, the sound-chamber is provided with one or more ear-tubes.
   The lamp-black cell can be located in the main circuit in which the electrical or telephonic receiving apparatus is placed, or it can be connected with a receiving-circuit by means of an induction coil or coils, as telephonic transmitters using a battery have been connected.

*U.S. Patent No. 259,397 , 06/13/1882 (app. 12/17/1880, no model) [DjVu94KB]
Hussey, Charles A. (assignee: Hussey Electric Company)
Abstract: My improvements consist in a novel process of transmitting and reproducing signals and articulate speech--namely, in establishing and maintaining a pressure of air, gas, or other fluid in excess of the atmospheric pressure in a constantly-closed tube or conduit, in imparting to said air, gas, or other fluid impulses from sound-waves, and in utilizing said impulses for reproducing sound-waves at a distant place.
   They also consist in the combination of a tube, means for establishing and maintaining a pressure of air or other gas or fluid in the tube in excess of atmospheric pressure, and a diaphragm capable of a vibratory motion for transmitting the impulses imparted to it through the tube to a receiver tbr reproducing the same at one end of the tube.
   They also consist in the combination, with a tube of electric conducting material, of a diaphragm capable of a vibratory movement for transmitting the impulses from sound-waves through the same, and an electric telegraphic apparatus connected with said tube and utilizing it as a line-conductor.
   They also consist in the combination of a tube for the transmission of impulses from sound-waves, diaphragms for transmitting the impulses from sound-waves through the same, and concentrators attached to the diaphragms for concentrating the effect of the sound-waves on the center of the diaphragms.
   They also consist in the combination of a tube for the transmission of impulses from sound-waves, means for establishing and maintaining a pressure of air, gas, or fluid in excess of atmospheric pressure in the same, diaphragms or other things for transmitting the impulses, and a gage for indicating the pressure in the tube.

*U.S. Patent No, 270,342 , 01/09/1883 (app. 10/09/1882, no model) [DjVu57KB]
Sargent, Willard E.
Abstract: The more especial object of this invention is to forrm tubes of plastic material--such as celluoid, lignoid, coraline, or other allied substances--so that any combinations of colors or designs upon or in the rough material will be preserved through the process of forming the tubing.
   Heretofore tubes of plastic material have been formed by forcing the said material through a nozzle; but by this process it was impossible to produce a tube having a mottled appearance in imitation, for example, of tortoise-shell and malachite. The process of forcing the plastic material through a nozzle gave to the tube a striped appearance, the mottles in the uniformed matter being distorted into longitudinal lines in the tubes, whereby the latter are rendered uumarketable as imitations. These objections my invention overcomes; but I do not wish to be understood as limiting my invention to its employment with mottled stock.
   In carrying out my invention I arrange arouud an elastic tube, e, suitably connected at each end to allow steam or hot water to pass therethrough, a thin sheet of metal, d, the edges of which overlap, as shown in Fig. 1. The object of said sheet is to prevent the celluloid or plastic material from adhering to the elastic tubing e when they are under the influence of heat and pressure. Over said sheet of metal is arranged a roll of sheet plastic material, c, haviug the edges thereof, f, covered with cement, by which they are united when the heat and pressure are brought to bear. The said edges are beveled and overlap, as shown in the drawings. The whole is next placed in a die, a, provided with steam or hot-water passages b. Steam or hot water, under pressure, is then applied to the inside of the elastic tube e, which causes the same to expand and forces the plastic material c against the walls of the die and unites the edges to form a tube.

*U.S. Patent No. 277,349 , 05/08/1883 (app. 03/07/1883, no model) [DjVu167KB]
AUTOMATIC TELEGRAPH. (class: 178/3; 178/92; 369/69)
Rogers, J. Harris
Abstract: Still another plan is that patented by me August 20, 1882, with J. W. Rogers as co-inventor, in which a thin metal strip was embossed with dots and dashes and the strip passed beneath a contact-point, which closed the circuit whenever said point touched an embossment or elevation, and broke the circuit at the intervening points. In this case it will be perceived that the metal embossment successively form the terminals of one end of the circuit.
   My present invention is based upon this latter principle; and it consists in a novel arrangement of stylus and indented metal foil or sheet in an automatic telegraph for the purpose Of transmitting electrical impulses by breaking connection over the indentations in the strip or sheet and making contact with the intervening spaces lying in the normal plane of the strip or sheet, in contradistinction to making contact with raised embossmerits.
   My invention also consists in the method of preparing and transmitting a message without removal of the strip or sheet from its carrier; and also, further, in the means for avoiding tailings or static charges on the line, as will be fully set forth hereinafter.

*U.S. Patent No. 279,292 , 06/12/1883 (U.S. app. 04/10/1882, no model) [DjVu224KB]
(Patented: in France 02/23/1882, No. 147,522; in Belgium 02/24/1882, No. 57,154; in England 03/01/1882, No. 900; in Germany 03/10/1882, No. 20,401)
Waldrop, Jan Herman Marie (Nymwegen, Holland)
Abstract: The constantly-increasing weight of the loads carried by railway-trains has latterly caused attention to be directed to the necessity of limiting the speed of such trains when passing over iron railway-bridges, in the interest of the security and the preservation of such bridges, and in some countries regulations have already been enacted in this direction, among others in the Kingdom of Holland, where the speed at which trains are allowed to pass over bridges is limited to thirty kilometers (about eighteen and a half miles) an hour.
   Now, the object of this invention is to provide mechanism and apparatus for registering this speed. Such mechanisms, of which the registering or recording apparatus constitutes an integral part, should, to be of any real value for the purpose for which it is intended, combine the following properties: First, the mechanism should work automatically without the intervention of the employe charged with taking off the records, as the only duty of this employe should be to see to the regular working of the mechanism and to prepare the instrument for receiving the records; second, the apparatus for receiving and making the records should be placed within the immediate reach of the said employe, and should by preference be placed in the office of the station-superintendent, and it should be inclosed in such a manner that no other person than he can touch it; third, the records should comprise a series of trains passing during a space of time--of twenty-four hours, for example--without it being necessary ibr the employe to touch the apparatus; fourth, the records should be such, if required, as to separately indicate the speed of the train at various parts of the bridge. None of the apparatuses at present in use fulfill these combined conditions. They consequently give inexact results, and therefore cannot be relied on. Some of the said apparatuses indicate the speed (notably the Boulenge system) by means of a needle moving over a dial. By observing the space passed over by the needle the speed of the train is calculated, while the needle has to be brought back to zero for the next train. Others--such as those used on the Netherland States railways--indicate the progress of the train over the bridge on a band or ribbon of paper by means of a wheel coated with ink, in a similar manner to that by which the Morse apparatus transmits telegraphic symbols; and to cause the paper band to unroll, the employe, each time a train is expected, has to put the apparatus in movement and to stop it when the train has passed. The speed is calculated by measuring on the band of paper the distance between the point where the wheel commenced to mark at the entrance of the train, and the point at which the wheel ceased to mark when the train left the bridge.
   The mechanism and apparatus hereinafter described are free from the objections common to those employed until now.
   The improved mechanism and apparatus may be divided into two distinct parts, videlicet: first, the mechanism or bridge apparatus on the bridge itself; consisting of a certain number of contact-points, which communicate the passage of the wheels of the train to; second, an apparatus placed in the inspector's office of the nearest station where the said contacts are recorded.

*U.S. Patent No. 281,529 , 07/17/1883 (app. 05/10/1883, no model) [DjVu114KB]
Lefferts, Marshall C. (assignee: The Celluloid Manufacturing Company)
Abstract: The invention has relation to an improved process and apparatus for lining and coating the inside of pipes, tubes, and other hollow articles with celluloid or other plastic material.
   The distinctive characteristics of my process consists in, first, inserting a tube of the celluloid or other plastic material into the article to be lined, and then, by means of steam, water, or other internal pressure, causing the tube of plastic material to expand against and closely adhere to the inner superficies of the article.
   The invention will admit of various modifications, which will suggest-themselves from the description hereinafter presented, without a more specific explanation.
   Heretofore in the manufacture of pipes it has been customary, in order tO prevent the liquid from acting upon the inner metallic superficies, to line the pipes with various substances, among which may be mentioned glass and tin; but it is well known, however, that the glass will shatter when the pipe is jarred, and that the pipe lined with glass cannot be bent without breaking the lining. Tin-lined pipes are too expensive for general use, and are not desirable for various reasons.
   The object of the Present invention is to furnish a means for lining pipes which will permit of the pipe being bent without injuring the lining, and which will be comparatively inexpensive, and can easily be kept clean, and which will not be affected by, nor Will it injuriously affect, water, beer, ale, vinegar, acids, and other materials passing through it.
   The invention is alike applicable to articles made from materials other than metal.
   In practicing my invention, when lining a pipe, for illustration, I first prepare a tube of celluloid or other plastic material, according to the well-known means, of such size that it will readily pass into the pipe, the ends of the tube being afterward bent outward over the edges of the pipe, in order that the agent used to effect the adherence of the tube will not pass between it and the pipe. Steam or other heated fluid is then passed through the tube inclosed by the pipe until the celluloid has become plastic or softened, at which time the outlet is closed, and the supply of steam or other fluid continued under pressure, the effect of which is to expand the celluloid tube and cause it to adhere securely against the inner superficies of the pipe. After this step in the process the pipe is cooled by sprinkling water upon it, by immersion in a water bath, or by the passage through it of a cooling agent, thereby "setting" the celluloid and completing the operation.

*U.S. Patent No. 283,665 , 08/21/1883 (app. 05/03/1883, no model) [DjVu155KB]
AUTOMATIC TELEGRAPH. (class: 178/17R; 178/92)
Rogers, James Webb
Abstract: My invention relates to an automatic telegraph designed for rapid transmission and easy repetition of messages. It is founded upon the following general principles of construction, which are already known and made use of, viz: an indented fillet or sheet of paper or other non-conducting material, which, when passed under a movable terminal of an electric circuit, is made to actuate mechanically the said terminal to alternate contact and separation from the other terminal as the indentations successively pass under the movable terminal for the purpose of alternately opening and closing an electric circuit.
   My invention consists in the combination of a spirally-grooved cylinder having a rotary motion, a jacket or strip of paper or other indentable material having indented characters therein and wrapped around said cylinder, and two terminals of an electric circuit, one of which is movable and is actuated to intermittent contact with the other terminal by traveling on the normal or Plane surface of the paper, and separates from the other terminal by falling into the indentation in said strip of paper, the traverse of the groove by the movable terminal being effected either by the endwise movement of the cylinder or the movement Of the terminals parallel to the axis of the cylinder, as hereinafter fully described.

*U.S. Patent No. 287,166 , 10/23/1883 (app. 05/28/1883, no model) [DjVu288KB]
PHONOGRAPH. (class: 369/155)
Reynolds, Christopher C.

*U.S. Patent No. 372,786 , 11/08/1887 (app. 05/04/1887 and 11/26/1887) [DjVu178LB]
GRAMOPHONE. (class: 369/155; 369/277; 369/287)
Berliner, Emile
Abstract: This invention has reference to a novel method of and apparatus for recording and reproducing all kinds of sounds, including spoken words, and is designed to overcome  the defects inherent in that art as now practiced and in the apparatus used therefor.
   By the ordinary method of recording spoken words or other sounds for reproduction it is attempted to cause a stylus attached to a vibratory diaphragm to indent a traveling sheet of tin foil or other like substance to a depth varying in accordance with the amplitudes of the sound waves to be recorded. This attempt is necessarily more or less ineffective, for the reason that the force of a diaphragm vibrating under the impact of sound-waves is very weak, and that in the of overcoming the resistance of the tin-foil or oher material the vibrations of the diaphragm are not only weakend, but also modified. Thus while the record contains as many undulations as the sounds which produce it, and in the same order of succession, the character of the recorded undulations is more or less different from those of the sounds uttered against the diaphragm. There is, then, a true record of the pitch, but a distorted record of the quality of the sounds obtained. The simple statement that the material upon which the record is made resists the movement of the diaphragm is not sufficient to explain the distortion of the character of the undulations, for if that resistance were uniform, or even proportional to the displacement of the stylus, the record would be simply weakened, but not distorted; but, it is a fact that the resistance of any material to indentation increases faster than the depth of indentation, so that a vibration of greater amplitude of the stylus meets with a disproportionately greater resistance than a vibration of smaller  amplitude. For this reason loud sounds are even less accurately recorded than faint sounds, and the individual voice of a loud speaker recorded and then reproduced by the phonograph cannot be recognized. With a view of overcoming this defect it has been attempted to engrave instead of indent a record of the vibrations of the diaphragm by employing a stylus shaped and operating like a chisel upon a suitably-prepared surface; but even in this case the disturbing causes above referred to are still present. In addition to this, if in the apparatus of the phonograph or graphophone type it is attempted to avoid the disturbing influence of the increase of resistance of the record-surface with the depth of indentation or cut as much as possible by primarily adjusting the stylus so as to touch the record surface only lightly, then another disturbing influence is brought into existence by the fact that with such adjustment, When the diaphragm moves outwardly, the stylus will leave the record-surface entirely, so that part of each vibration will not be recorded at all. This is more particularly the case when loud sounds are recorded, and it manifests itself in the reproduction, which then yields quite'unintelligible sonnds.


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